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Importance Of Green Design In Urban Oasis



Green Design In Urban Oasis

By Awojobi .I. Olakanmi; Matric Number : 18/4853, Level : Msc 11, Dept Of Architecture


In the face of rapid urbanization, cities worldwide are grappling with the challenge of maintaining environmental quality and human well-being.


As a response, the concept of urban oases has emerged, advocating for the integration of green spaces into urban landscapes.

This paper delves into the significance of green design within urban oases, emphasizing its crucial role in promoting environmental sustainability, social cohesion, and economic prosperity.

Through a comprehensive review of literature, and synthesis of research findings, the paper explores the multifaceted benefits of green infrastructure in urban environments.


It examines how green design principles, such as vegetation integration, permeable surfaces, and ecological functionality, contribute to mitigating environmental degradation, enhancing public health, and fostering community engagement.

By showcasing successful urban oasis projects from around the world, the paper illustrates innovative approaches to green design and their tangible impacts on urban livability and resilience. Furthermore, it addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing green infrastructure, highlighting the need for collaborative efforts and visionary leadership in urban planning and development. Ultimately, the paper underscores the importance of prioritizing green design in shaping sustainable and inclusive cities for present and future generations.


As cities expand at an unprecedented rate globally, the urban environment faces mounting challenges ranging from pollution and resource depletion to social isolation and deteriorating public health. In response to these pressing issues, the concept of urban oases has emerged as a beacon of hope, advocating for the integration of green spaces within the urban fabric. Urban oases, characterized by their lush vegetation, ecological functionality, and aesthetic appeal, offer a promising solution to mitigate the adverse impacts of rapid urbanization.


The importance of green design within urban oases cannot be overstated. By incorporating elements such as parks, gardens, green roofs, and permeable surfaces into the built environment, cities can achieve a delicate balance between human needs and ecological imperatives. Green design principles, rooted in ecological sustainability and social equity, hold the key to transforming concrete jungles into vibrant, resilient, and livable urban environments.

As the world continues to urbanize at an unprecedented pace, the need for sustainable urban development becomes increasingly urgent. By prioritizing green design in urban planning and development processes, cities can create healthier, more resilient, and inclusive environments for current and future generations. This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on urban sustainability and inspire action towards building greener, more livable cities worldwide.

1. Urban Oasis

“The transformation of degraded urban spaces into catalysts for sustainable development is exemplified in projects such as the Urban Oasis initiative in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul – Brazil. This project proposes the conversion of the Company of Silos and Warehouses (CESA), a disused industrial site, into a green laboratory and park.


It emphasizes the integration of social, environmental, and economic aspects, aiming to create a space for practical and sustainable activities. By reimagining the area’s connection with the city center and implementing an ecological network, the project seeks to promote sustainable development and community engagement.

This case study exemplifies the potential of urban oases to address environmental degradation and social disconnection, while also highlighting the importance of integrated approaches to sustainability in higher education practices.”

2. Urban Design And Public Spaces

Urban design serves as a cornerstone in the endeavor to foster sustainability, particularly within the realm of urban oases. While various theories and ideals abound, ranging from new urbanism to post urbanism and sustainable urbanism  (Haas, 2008, 2012), They all converge on the fundamental importance of shaping public spaces.


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Whether advocating for traditional methodologies rooted in historical principles or embracing avant-garde approaches influenced by globalization and contemporary architectural trends, the overarching objective remains consistent: to craft environments that are not only livable and healthy but also rich in variation, interaction, and contrast.

However, amid this diversity of approaches, a common challenge arises – the imperative for robust analytical support to effectively address pressing global issues such as demographic shifts, social disparities, and environmental degradation.


As cities grapple with these multifaceted challenges, the concept of sustainability transcends mere physical aspects to encompass the intricate interplay between public spaces and their surrounding elements. This holistic perspective underscores the significance of considering cultural and ecological interactions alongside physical permanence in the pursuit of sustainability.

In this context, sustainability is conceptualized not solely in terms of developmental practices but also as encompassing forms of well-being, social cohesion, community empowerment, and urban infrastructure renewal. ( Brito and Stafford-Smith 2012), the evolving nature of urban life, shaped by processes such as urbanization and globalization, necessitates a comprehensive approach that acknowledges the dynamic interrelationships between people, place, and environment.

Consequently, the design and management of urban oases emerge as crucial arenas where these complex dynamics converge, underscoring the pivotal role of urban design in shaping sustainable and resilient urban environments.


3.Sustainable Public Space in the Urban Context

Interest in public space spans back through history, with origins in long-established community characteristics exemplified by ancient spaces like the Greek Agora and the Roman Forum. These spaces served as embodiments of social solidarity and community life, as articulated by Jurgen Habermas, who conceptualized public space as a physical realm where the public domain finds expression, fostering urban democracy through social interaction and political engagement. Thus, public space inherently carries political and communicative significance, rooted in principles of free participation and mutual understanding.

In contemporary urban contexts, the imperative for sustainable design within public spaces arises from macroscopic shifts in the global environment, evolving trends in global agreements, and the growing urbanization coupled with increased demand for public space enhancement. Matthew Carmona emphasizes the importance of acknowledging regional cultures and the unique characteristics of local communities, advocating for an approach that prioritizes the distinctiveness of place over a homogenized globalization-driven model in urban planning and design.

A comprehensive study of public space necessitates consideration of both tangible and intangible elements that contribute to the fabric of the city, including ecological factors crucial for advancing sustainable urban development. Sustainable public space components can be categorized into physical, cultural, and ecological dimensions, highlighting the multifaceted nature of urban design interventions aimed at promoting environmental stewardship, cultural richness, and social inclusivity.


4.Scopes of Urban Sustainability

In the pursuit of sustainable urban development, the integration of green design principles plays a pivotal role in transforming urban oases into vibrant, resilient, and inclusive spaces. By examining the components of environmental, social, and economic sustainability within urban contexts, we can elucidate the multifaceted benefits of incorporating green design into the fabric of our cities.

4.1. Environmental Sustainability:

Urban oases serve as sanctuaries amidst the concrete jungle, providing crucial respite from the hustle and bustle of city life. To ensure their long-term viability, it is imperative to prioritize environmental sustainability within these green spaces. This entails maximizing land use efficiency, minimizing pollution, and creating ample parks and green areas to enhance ecological balance and support biodiversity.


Moreover, sustainable architectural practices, such as passive circulation systems for natural ventilation and energy-efficient infrastructure, are integral components of green design in urban oases. By minimizing reliance on mechanical devices and harnessing the natural elements, these design features not only reduce environmental impact but also contribute to a healthier and more sustainable urban environment.

4.2. Social Sustainability:

Beyond their ecological significance, urban oases serve as vital social hubs where communities gather, interact, and thrive. Preserving historic landmarks, promoting cultural diversity, and fostering inclusivity are essential aspects of social sustainability within these spaces. By integrating green design elements such as public parks, recreational areas, and community gardens, urban oases can promote social cohesion, cultural enrichment, and community well-being.


Furthermore, the creation of accessible and inclusive public spaces ensures that urban oases cater to the diverse needs of residents, fostering a sense of belonging and connectedness within the community. Through collaborative planning and design processes that prioritize community engagement and empowerment, urban oases can evolve into vibrant centers of social interaction and cultural exchange.


4.3. Economic Sustainability:


In addition to their environmental and social benefits, urban oases contribute to economic sustainability by enhancing property values, attracting investment, and creating job opportunities within the local economy. Green design practices, such as energy conservation, sustainable materials usage, and efficient transportation systems, not only reduce operational costs but also stimulate economic growth and development.

Moreover, the revitalization of urban oases through green design initiatives can catalyze urban regeneration efforts, driving tourism, commerce, and investment in surrounding areas. By leveraging the economic potential of green spaces, cities can foster a thriving urban economy while simultaneously advancing environmental and social sustainability goals.

5. Consideration For Green Building

Green building involves consideration in four main areas: site development, material selection and minimization, energy efficiency, and indoor air quality


Consider site development to reduce the impact of development on the natural environment. For example, orient the buildings to take advantage of solar access, shading and wind patterns that will lessen heating and cooling loads.

Carefully select materials that are durable, contain recycled content, and are locally manufactured to reduce negative environmental impacts. A growing market exists of quality recycled products at affordable prices.

Incorporate energy-efficient design into buildings to create an efficient and comfortable environment. Take advantage of the natural elements and technologies to conserve resources and increase occupant comfort/productivity while lowering long-term operational costs and pollutants (CBFEE, 1999).


Design for high indoor air quality to promote occupant health and productivity.

Minimize the waste in construction and demolition processes by recovering materials and reusing or recycling those (CGB, 2009).

6. The Principles Of Green Building Design

The green building design process begins with an intimate understanding of the site in all its beauties and complexities. An ecological approach to design aims to integrate the systems being introduced with the existing on-site ecological functions performed by Mother Nature.


These ecological functions provide habitat, respond to the movements of the sun, purify the air as well as catch, filter and store water. Designers can create features in their buildings that mimic the functions of particular eco-systems. Species that thrive in natural ecosystems may also utilize habitats created in man-made structures. Creating new habitat on structures in urbanized areas is especially important to support bio-diversity and a healthy ecosystem (Thomas, 2009).  The following points summarize key principles, strategies and technologies which are  associated with the five major elements of green building design which are: Sustainable Site Design; Water Conservation and Quality; Energy and Environment; Indoor Environmental Quality; and Conservation of Materials and Resources. This information supports of the use of the USGBC LEED Green Building Rating System, but focuses on principles and strategies rather than specific solutions or technologies, which are often site specific and will vary from project to project (USGBC).


Fig.1: Elements of green building design by author (USGBC).


6.1. Water Systems

Water – often called the source of life – can be captured, stored, filtered, and reused. It provides a valuable resource to be celebrated in the process of green building design.

According to Art Ludwig in Create an Oasis out of Greywater, only about 6% of the water we use is for drinking. There is no need to use potable water for irrigation or sewage. The Green Building Design course introduces methods of rainwater harvesting, grey water systems, and living pools (BCKL, 2009).


The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles water in toilet flushing or by using water for washing of the cars. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper, reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. Point of use water treatment (fig5) and heating improves both water quality and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation. The use of non-sewage and greywater for on-site use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer (Stephen & Harrell, 2008).


6.2. Natural Building


A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving  sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality. Natural building tends to rely on human labor, more than technology. As Michael G. Smith observes, it depends on “local ecology, geology and climate; on the character of the particular building site, and on the needs and personalities of the builders and users (Smith, 2002).

The basis of natural building is the need to lessen the environmental impact of buildings and other supporting systems, without  sacrificing comfort or health. To be more sustainable, natural building uses primarily abundantly available, renewable, reused or recycled materials. The use of rapidly renewable materials is increasingly a focus.



In addition to relying on natural building materials, the emphasis on the architectural design is heightened. The orientation of a building, the utilization of local climate and site conditions, the emphasis on natural ventilation through design, fundamentally lessen operational costs and positively impact the environmental. Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment and water reuse (Smith, 2002).

6.3. Passive Solar Design

Passive solar design refers to the use of the sun’s energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces. The building itself or some element of it takes advantage of natural energy characteristics in its materials to absorb and radiate the heat created by exposure to the sun. Passive systems are simple, have few moving parts and no mechanical systems, require minimal maintenance and can decrease, or even eliminate, heating and cooling costs (BCKL, 2009).


Passive solar design uses that to capture the sun’s energy:

x Solar passive features x Shape and form of buildings. x

Orientation of the facades. x


Design of Building plan and section. x Thermal insulation and thermal storage of roof.

x Thermal Insulation and thermal storage of the exterior walls.

Homes in any climate can take advantage of solar energy by incorporating passive solar design features and decreasing carbon dioxide emissions. Even in cold winters, passive solar design can help cut heating costs and increase comfort (BCKL, 2009).


Solar buildings are  designed to keep environment comfortable in all seasons without much expenditure on electricity 30 to 40% savings with additional 5 to 10% cost towards passive features.

Major Components: Orientation, double glazed windows, window overhangs, thermal storage walls roof, roof painting, Ventilation, evaporation, day lighting, construction material etc.

Designs depend on direction & intensity of Sun & wind, ambient temp., humidity etc. Different designs for different climatic zones.



6.4. Green Building Materials



Green building materials are generally composed of renewable rather than nonrenewable resources and are environmentally responsible because their impacts are considered over the life of the product. In addition, green building materials generally result in reduced maintenance and replacement costs over the life of the building, conserve energy, and improve occupant health and productivity. Green building materials can be selected by evaluating characteristics such as reused and recycled content, zero or low off-gassing of harmful air emissions, zero or low toxicity, sustainably and rapidly renewable harvested materials, high recyclability, durability, longevity, and local production (Cullen, 2010).

The materials common to many types of natural building are clay and sand. When mixed with water and, usually, straw or another fiber, the mixture may form cob or adobe (clay blocks). Other materials commonly used in natural building are: earth (as rammed earth or earth bag), wood (cordwood or timber frame/post-andbeam), straw, rice-hulls, bamboo and stone. A wide variety of reused or recycled non-toxic materials are common in natural building, including urbanite (salvaged chunks of used concrete), vehicle windscreens and other recycled glass (Woolley , 2006).

One-half of the world’s population lives or works in buildings constructed of earth. Straw bale construction is now gaining in popularity and Many jurisdictions in California have adopted the Straw bale Building Code. Green Building Design favors natural building for its local availability, ease of use, lack of toxic ingredients, increased energy efficiency, and aesthetic appeal (NAOHB, 1998).


Several other materials are increasingly avoided by many practitioners of this building approach, due to their major negative environmental or health impacts. These include unsustainably harvested wood, toxic wood-preservatives, Portland cement-based mixes, paints and other coatings that off-gas volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some plastics, particularly polyvinyl chloride (PVC or “vinyl”) and those containing harmful plasticizers or hormone-mimicking formulations (Woolley , 2006).


6.5. Living Architecture


The environment like our bodies can metabolize nutrients and waste. Living Architecture focuses on these processes,  integrating ecological functions into the buildings to catch, store, and filter water, purify air, and process other nutrients. Living Architecture also addresses biophilia, the documented health benefits associated with being in touch with living systems in the built environment (Susan, 2008).


Throughout history greening of outside walls and roofs of buildings has taken place. Reasons for doing so were the increase of insulation (keep cool in summer and keep cold out in winter), improved aesthetics, improved indoor and outdoor climate, reduce the greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) as well as increasing ecological values by creating habitats for birds and insects (Sheweka & Magdy, 2011).



6.5.1. Green roofs

serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing rainwater, providing insulation, creating a habitat for wildlife, increasing benevolence and decreasing stress of the people around the roof by providing a more aesthetically pleasing landscape, and helping to lower urban air temperatures and mitigate the heat island effect (Vandermeulen, 2011) There are two types of green roof:  Intensive roofs, which are thicker, with a minimum depth of 12.8 cm, and can support a wider variety of plants but are heavier and require more maintenance.  Extensive roofs, which are shallow, ranging in depth from 2 cm to 12.7 cm, lighter than intensive green roofs, and require minimal maintenance (Volder, 2014).


The term green roof may also be used to indicate roofs that use some form of green technology, such as a cool roof, a roof with solar thermal collectors or photovoltaic panels. Green roofs are also referred to as eco-roofs, vegetated roofs, living roofs, green roofs and VCPH (Wilmers, 1990). (Horizontal Vegetated Complex


6.5.2. Green Walls


Also known as vertical greenery is actually introducing plants onto the building façade. Comparing to green roof, green walls can cover more exposed hard surfaces in the built environment where skyscrapers are the predominant building style (Jonathan, 2003).

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According to Ken (Ken,2008), if a skyscraper has a plant ratio of one to seven, and then the façade area is equivalent to  almost three times the area. So, if the building is covered two thirds of the façade, this have contributed to doubling the extend of vegetation on site. So a skyscraper can become green, thus increasing the organic mass on the site (Wilmers, 1990).


There are three types of Green Walls:

The green walls can be divided into three fundamental types according to the species of the plants; types of growing media and construction method.  Wall-climbing Green wall is the very common and traditional green walls method. Although it is a time consuming process, climbing plants can cover the walls of building naturally. Sometimes they are grown upwards with the help of a trellis or other supporting systems (Wilmers, 1990).

Hanging-down Green Wall is also another popular approach for green walls. It can easily form a complete vertical green belt on a multi-story building through planting at every story compare to the wall-climbing type (Wilmers, 1990).


Module Green Wall is the latest concept compared to the previous two types. It requires more complicated design and planning considerations before a vertical system can come to place. It is also probably the most expensive green walls method (Jonathan, 2003)


  1. Green Building Benefits

Green building is not a simple development trend; it is an approach to building suited to the demands of its time, whose relevance and importance will only continue to increase (USGBC)

Comfort. Because a well-designed passive solar home or building is highly energy efficient, it is free of drafts. Extra sunlight from the south windows makes it more cheerful and pleasant in the winter than a conventional house (Kats, 2006)  Economy. If addressed at the design stage, passive solar construction doesn’t have to cost more than conventional construction, and it can save money on fuel bills (Kats, 2003)


Aesthetics. Passive solar buildings can have a conventional appearance on the outside, and the passive solar features make them bright and pleasant inside.

Environmentally responsible. Passive solar homes can significantly cut use of heating fuel and electricity used for lighting. If passive cooling strategies are used in the design, summer air conditioning costs can be reduced as well (Woolley , 2006).

  1. Conclusion

In summary, green design principles play a fundamental role in shaping the quality and sustainability of urban oases. By integrating green infrastructure elements such as parks, gardens, and sustainable transportation options, cities can address pressing environmental issues, enhance community well-being, and promote economic vitality. As urban areas grapple with rapid population growth and the consequences of climate change, prioritizing green design offers a pathway towards creating more resilient and inclusive cities.

Through thoughtful planning and implementation of green design strategies, urban oases can serve as models of sustainable development, providing valuable lessons for cities around the world. From reducing air and water pollution to providing spaces for recreation and social interaction, green design contributes to the overall health and happiness of urban residents. Moreover, investments in green infrastructure have been shown to yield significant economic returns, attracting businesses, increasing property values, and creating jobs.



As we look to the future, it is clear that green design will continue to be a cornerstone of urban planning and development efforts. By harnessing the power of nature and integrating green spaces into the built environment, cities can create healthier, more resilient, and more equitable communities. Through collaboration between policymakers, planners, designers, and residents, we can ensure that urban oases thrive as vibrant centers of life, culture, and sustainability for generations to come.


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